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Climate Library


Click here to access station information and other data sets (This will take you to links accessing U.S. and global climate data and plots as well as information derived from radiosonde and satellite.)

American Meteorological Society

The American Meteorological Society promotes the development and dissemination of information and education on the atmospheric and related oceanic and hydrologic sciences and the advancement of their professional applications. Founded in 1919, AMS has a membership of more than 11,000 professionals, professors, students, and weather enthusiasts. AMS publishes nine atmospheric and related oceanic and hydrologic journals — in print and online — sponsors more than 12 conferences annually, and offers numerous programs and services.

Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center

The Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center responds to data and information requests from users from all over the world who are concerned with the greenhouse effect and global climate change. 

Center for Science and Public Policy

The Center for Science and Public Policy relies on scientific experts in many nations and the vast body of peer-reviewed literature to help lawmakers, policy makers, and the media distinguish between scientific findings that are agenda-driven and those that are based on accepted scientific methods and practices. 

Center for Study of Carbon Dioxide and Global Change

Center for Study of Carbon Dioxide and Global Change disseminates factual reports and sound commentary on new developments in the world-wide scientific quest to determine the climatic and biological consequences of the ongoing rise in the air’s CO2 content.

CO2 Science

The Center for the Study of Carbon Dioxide and Global Change was created to disseminate factual reports and sound commentary on new developments in the world-wide scientific quest to determine the climatic and biological consequences of the ongoing rise in the air’s CO2 content.  It meets this objective through weekly online publication of its CO2 Science magazine, which contains editorials on topics of current concern and mini-reviews of recently published peer-reviewed scientific journal articles, books, and other educational materials.  In this endeavor, the Center attempts to separate reality from rhetoric in the emotionally-charged debate that swirls around the subject of carbon dioxide and global change.  In addition, to help students and teachers gain greater insight into the biological aspects of this phenomenon, the Center maintains on-line instructions on how to conduct CO2 enrichment and depletion experiments in its Global Change Laboratory (located in its Education Center section), which allow interested parties to conduct similar studies in their own homes and classrooms.

Competitive Enterprise Institute

Called “the best environmental think tank in the country” by The Wall Street Journal, the Competitive Enterprise Institute focuses on the development and promotion of free market approaches to environmental policy. As a leading proponent of free market environmentalism, CEI’s program includes both an overall effort to reframe the environmental debate and a series of targeted projects to reform specific policies, ranging from risk regulation to global warming. 

Demand Debate

The political activists who champion extreme measures to “combat” supposed human-caused global warming are not dissuaded by the reality that their suppositions remain highly questionahle on scientific grounds. Instead, they hammer the same talking point again and again—“the debate is over”—they claim. There is no longer any serious debate over the basic points that make up the consensus on global warming. That’s what Al Gore said when he testified before Congress on March 21, 2007. Similar statements have been made by numerous global warming alarmists wishing to shut-down debate. While such statements are not literally true, they have become practically true as many schools are choosing to present only the alarmist side of the debate. Schools and school systems across the nation, for example, have shown students Al Gore’s “An Inconvenient Truth” without presenting other views on the topic.  Not only are students being presented with only one side of that story, that one side may be psychologically damaging to children. DemandDebate educates and empowers parents and students about bias in environmental education. DemandDebate is supported by individuals and organizations.

Friends of Science

Friends of Science offers a critical mass of current science on global climate and climate change to policy makers, and any interested parties.

Heartland Institute

The Heartland Institute is a national nonprofit research and education organization, tax exempt under Section 501(c)3 of the Internal Revenue Code, and founded in Chicago in 1984. It is not affiliated with any political party, business, or foundation. Heartland’s mission is to discover, develop, and promote free-market solutions to social and economic problems. Such solutions include parental choice in education, choice and personal responsibility in health care, market-based approaches to environmental protection, privatization of public services, and deregulation in areas where property rights and markets do a better job than government bureaucracies. The Heartland Institute produces five monthly publications on budget and tax issues, environment and climate, health care reform, information technology and telecommunications, and school reform. It also publishes policy studies and books, hosts conferences and other events, supports 12 senior fellows, and maintains two web sites.

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has been established by WMO and UNEP to assess scientific, technical and socio- economic information relevant for the understanding of climate change, its potential impacts and options for adaptation and mitigation. It is currently finalizing its Fourth Assessment Report “Climate Change 2007”, also referred to as AR4. 

International Climate Science Coalition (ICSC)

ICSC is an international association of scientists, economists and energy and policy experts working to promote better public understanding of climate change science and policy worldwide.  ICSC is committed to providing a highly credible alternative to the UN’s Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) thereby fostering a more rational, open discussion about climate issues.

Marshall Institute

Begun in 1989, the Institute’s program involves a critical examination of the scientific basis for global climate change policy. The intent is to promote a clear understanding of the state of climate science and assess the implications for public policy. A major component of this effort is communicating the findings to policy makers, the media and the public policy community.

NASA - Global Change Directory

NASA - Global Change Directory’s mission is to enable the scientific community to discover and access Earth science data and services through distributed, integrated information technology systems.

National Climactic Data Center

National Climactic Data Center’s mission is to describe the climate of the United States and NCDC acts as the Nation’s Scorekeeper regarding the trends and anomalies of weather and climate.

National Hurricane Center

National Hurricane Center is the most comprehensive resource for hurricanes with the most up to date information on the latest forming hurricanes, analysis and forecasting of the current and past hurricane seasons, a complete history of hurricanes, and a section on hurricane awareness. 

National Weather Association

Supporting and Promoting Excellence in Operational Meteorology and Related Activities since 1975. Special subjest areas include: Aviation, Education, Remote Sensing, Specialized Meteorological Operational Services, Strategic Planning, Training, and Weather Analysis and Forecasting. They produce a newsletter and The National Weather Digest as an official publication of the NWA. It is devoted to peer-reviewed articles, technical notes, correspondence, and official news of the Association. They maintain a Seal program for Broadcasters.

Pielke Research Group at CIRES

The Pielke research group focuses on land-atmosphere interactions on the local, mesoscale, regional, and global scales. These interactions include biophysical, biogeochemical, and biogeographic effects. The RAMS model is a major tool used in this research. RAMS has been coupled to two different ecosystem-dynamics models (CENTURY and GEMTM) as part of these studies. Also applied is the CCM3 atmospheric global model from the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) in Boulder, Colorado. Our studies range from the tropics into the high Arctic regions. Our group has also applied RAMS to atmospheric-ocean interactions, including Arctic sea-ice feedbacks. We have investigated these nonlinear interactions within the Earth’s climate system using the coupled RAMS model, as well as simplified nonlinear mathematical models. See Climate Science website here.

Science and Environmental Policy Project

The Science & Environmental Policy Project was founded in 1990 by atmospheric physicist S. Fred Singer on the premise that sound, credible science must form the basis for health and environmental decisions that affect millions of people and cost tens of billions of dollars every year.  A non-profit, 501(c)3 educational group, its mission was to clarify the diverse problems facing the planet and, where necessary, arrive at effective, cost-conscious solutions. Publishes a regular Newsletter, TWTW.

Science and Public Policy Institute

The Science and Public Policy Institute (SPPI) is a nonprofit institute of research and education dedicated to sound public policy based on sound science. Free from affiliation to any corporation or political party, we support the advancement of sensible public policies for energy and the environment rooted in rational science and economics.  Only through science and factual information, separating reality from rhetoric, can legislators develop beneficial policies without unintended consequences that might threaten the life, liberty, and prosperity of the citizenry.

The Center for Ocean-Atmospheric Prediction Studies (COAPS)

The Center for Ocean-Atmospheric Prediction Studies (COAPS) performs research in air-sea interaction, ocean and coupled air-sea modeling, climate prediction, statistical studies, and predictions of social/economic consequences due to ocean-atmospheric variations.  A wonderful resource that the center maintains is a map of the temperature variability across the United States, which can be found here.

The Discover Project

The primary objective of the Distributed Information Services for Climate and Ocean Products and Visualizations for Earth Research (DISCOVER) Project is to provide highly accurate, long-term ocean and climate products suitable for the most demanding Earth research applications via easy-to-use display and data access tools. These products are derived from a large network of satellite microwave sensors going back to 1979. Most of the products are produced in near real-time (3-12 hours) on a 24x7 basis and hence are also suitable for some weather applications. The products include sea-surface temperature and wind, air temperature, atmospheric water vapor, cloud water, and rain rate. A key element of DISCOVER is the merging of multiple sensors from multiple platforms into geophysical data sets consistent in both space and time.

The Fraser Institute

The Fraser Institute seeks to ensure that Canadian environment and safety policy is based on sound science; is prioritized for effectiveness and efficiency; is flexible and cooperative; harnesses the role of markets and incentives; and makes best use of the local knowledge of stakeholders. Through informing Canadians about proven market-friendly solutions to environmental problems and risk management, the needs of the public for safety and environmental quality can be secured while maintaining economic growth and development. Key Programs And Publications include
Independent Summary for Policymakers, The Science Isn’t Settled: The Limitations of Global Climate Models, The State of Urban Air in Canada

The Global Warming Petition Project

The purpose of the Petition Project is to demonstrate that the claim of “settled science” and an overwhelming “consensus” in favor of the hypothesis of human-caused global warming and consequent climatological damage is wrong. No such consensus or settled science exists. As indicated by the petition text and signatory list, a very large number of American scientists reject this hypothesis. Publicists at the United Nations, Mr. Al Gore, and their supporters frequently claim that only a few “skeptics” remain - skeptics who are still unconvinced about the existence of a catastrophic human-caused global warming emergency. It is evident that 31,072 Americans with university degrees in science - including 9,021 PhDs, are not “a few.” Moreover, from the clear and strong petition statement that they have signed, it is evident that these 31,072 American scientists are not “skeptics.” These scientists are instead convinced that the human-caused global warming hypothesis is without scientific validity and that government action on the basis of this hypothesis would unnecessarily and counterproductively damage both human prosperity and the natural environment of the Earth.

The New Zealand Climate Science Coalition

The New Zealand Climate Science Coalition’s mission is to represent accurately, and without prejudice, facts regarding climate change; to provide considered opinion on matters related to both natural and human-caused climate effects; and to comment on the economic and socio-political consequences of climate change.

The Scientific Alliance

Formed in 2001, the Scientific Alliance is a non-profit membership-based organisation, now based in Cambridge. The Alliance brings together both scientists and non-scientists committed to rational discussion and debate on the challenges facing the environment today. Members of the Scientific Alliance are concerned about the many ways in which science is often misinterpreted, and at times misrepresented, within both policy circles and in the media. The Alliance thus works to overcome this misunderstanding by aiming to: Promote sound science in the environmental debate; Ensure that scientific arguments remain prominent throughout the policy making process; Facilitate an informed dialogue between all stakeholders involved in the environmental debate through events and publications. The Scientific Alliance is led by a Scientific Advisory Forum comprised of respected scientists and experts from many different fields. They set the Scientific Alliance’s general policies and together with other members of the Scientific Alliance, act as spokespeople for the organisation. The Alliance’s director is Martin Livermore.  As a membership-based campaign organisation, the Alliance welcomes donations from individuals, scientific and academic institutions, societies, trusts, companies, trade associations and other organisations. Donations and support are crucial to enable the Alliance to carry out its work, but they are only accepted if made without conditions and afford no influence on the policies of the Scientific Alliance. 

The Tropical Meteorology Project

The Tropical Meteorology Project is a project of Dr. William Gray, the foremost expert on hurricane forecasting.  His website houses his latest predictions for the upcoming hurricane season in the Atlantic Basin, which he has been doing since 1984. 

U.S. Enivironmental Protection Agency Climate Change Program

The term climate change is often used interchangeably with the term global warming, but according to the National Academy of Sciences, “the phrase ‘climate change’ is growing in preferred use to ‘global warming’ because it helps convey that there are [other] changes in addition to rising temperatures.”

United States Geological Survey (USGS)

United States Geological Survey (USGS) provides reliable scientific information to describe and understand the Earth; minimize loss of life and property from natural disasters; manage water, biological, energy, and mineral resources; and enhance and protect our quality of life.


Studies and Reports

“Is the U.S. Temperature Record Reliable?” (July, 2009)

By Anthony Watts

180 Years of Atmospheric CO2 Gas Analysis By Chemical Methods--Support (February, 2007)

By Ernst-Georg Beck

2008 Climate Debate (April, 2008)

By William F. Jasper

50 Years of Continuous Measurement of CO2 (November, 2008)

By Ernst-Georg Beck, Dipl.Biol.

A Breath of Fresh Air at a Climate Change Conference (May, 2008)

By Joseph D’Aleo in the Energy Tribune

A Challenge to the Carbon Dioxide - Global Warming Connection (April, 2009)

By Jules Kalbfeld

A Compilation of Climatic Event Changes (January, 2009)

By Global Warming Science

A Critique on The Lockwood/Frohlich Paper in the Royal Society Proceedings (November, 2007)

By Ken Gregory, Friends of Science

A different view of ENSO and systematic climate change (October, 2009)

By Erl Happ on Climate Change1

A possible means of escape from the horrors of carbon dioxide emission constraints (October, 2009)

By Richard S Courtney

A Reanalysis of the 1911–20 Atlantic Hurricane Database (June, 2008)

By Christopher W. Landsea et al. in Journal of Climate

A Simple Method to Correct CO2 Concentrations in Ice Core Data (May, 2008)

By J.J. Drake

Address to the Commonwealth Club (October, 2007)

By Michael Chrichton

Al Gore’s An Inconvenient Truth: One-sided, Misleading, Exaggerated, Speculative, Wrong (October, 2007)

Marlo Lewis Jr. in CEI’s On Point

Al Gore’s Science Fiction (May, 2008)

By Marlo Lewis Jr., CEI

An Inconvenient Truth: A Global Warning (January, 2007)

By Joe D’Aleo

Annotated Bibliography of Peer Review Papers Addressing Aspects of Greenhouse Warming- to 2007 (July, 2009)

By Dr. Madhav Khandekar, retired Environment Canada Scientist, IPCC Reviewer, on Friends of Science

Antarctic Temperature and Sea Ice Trends over the Last Century: An Assessment of the Antarctic Sea I (March, 2006)

By George Taylor, CCM

Anthropogenic Global Warming - Fact or Fiction (January, 2009)

By James A. Peden, The Middlebury Community Network

Apocalypse Cancelled (November, 2006)

By Lord Christopher Monckton in Sunday Telegraph

Are the Greenland and Antarctic Ice Sheets in Danger of Collapse? (November, 2007)

By Cliff D. Ollier for CSPP

Are there trends in hurricane destruction? (December, 2005)

Chris Landsea, Nature 436, 686–688 (2005)

Assessing the Supreme Court’s CO2 Ruling (May, 2007)

George C. Marshall Institute

Atmospheric CO2 and Global Warming (February, 2008)

Jaworowksi, Z., Segalstad, T.V. and Hisdal, V. 

Book Review of The Asian Monsoon: Causes, History & Effects by Peter D Clift and R Allan Plumb (July, 2009)

Book Reviewed by Madhav Khandekar

Carbon cycle modelling and the Residence Time of Natural and Anthropogenic CO2 (April, 2007)

Tom Victor Segalstad, University of Oslo, Norway

Carbon Dioxide, The Houdini of Gases (September, 2008)

By Alan Siddons and Joe D’Aleo

Climate Action Plans Fail to Deliver (November, 2008)

By Bob Ferguson, SPPI

Climate Change - Testimony to Congress (February, 2009)

Testimony of William Happer, Cyrus Fogg Brackett Professor of Physics, Princeton University

Climate Change: A Fundamental Analysis of the Greenhouse Effect (February, 2008)

By John Nicol

Climate Change: Incorrect Information on Pre-industrial CO2 (March, 2004)

Statement of Prof. Zbigniew Jaworowski to the US Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation

Climate Issues and Questions: Third Edition (February, 2008)

By the Marshall Institute

Climate Science: Climate Change and Its Impacts (May, 2007)

David Legates, National Center for Policy Analysis

Climate Science: Is it currently designed to answer questions? (January, 2009)

By Richard S. Lindzen, Program in Atmospheres, Oceans and Climate, MIT

Clouds Have Made Fools of Climate Modelers (May, 2009)

By Ken Gregory, Friends of Science on Dr. Spencer’s Climate Feedback papers

CO2, Temperatures and Ice Ages (January, 2009)

By Frank Lansner, civil engineer, biotechnology

CO2: The Greatest Scientific Scandal of Our Time (May, 2007)

By Zbigniew Jaworowski, M.D., Ph.D., D.Sc.

Computer Climate Models (December, 2008)

By Dr. Tim Ball

Consensus, What Consensus (March, 2008)

By John McLean

Controlling Earth’s Temperatures (May, 2008)

By Grant Wales

Cool Thinking on Climate Change:Why the EU’s climate alarmism is both mistaken and dangerous (November, 2009)

Roger Helmer MEP

Cosmoclimatology (April, 2007)

By Henrik Svensmark courtesy of

Counting Atlantic Tropical Cyclones Back to 1900 (May, 2007)

By Chris Landsea published in EOS

Death Blow to Anthropogenic Global Warming (December, 2008)

By Stephen Wilde

Documented Problems in Measurement of Historical CO2 Concentrations (June, 2007)

E.G. Beck paper and monograph at Leiden (Netherlands) Meeting June 26, 2007

Does a Global Temperature Exist? (May, 2008)

By Christopher Essex, Ross McKitrick, Bjarne Andresen

Dr. Tim Ball’s Climate Insight Series (April, 2009)

By Dr. Tim Ball, Friends of Science

Earth’s Energy System (March, 2009)

By Reason McLucus

Earth’s Heat Source - The Sun (March, 2009)

Oliver K. Manuel in Energy and the Environment

Earth’s Radiative Equilibrium in the Solar Irradiance (April, 2009)

By Martin Hertzberg In Energy and the Environment

Editorial Bias and the Prediction of Climate Disaster:  the Crisis of Science Communication (April, 2008)

By Dr. Benny Peiser, Liverpool John Moores University

Editorial: The Great Global Warming Hoax? (February, 2008)

By James A. Peden, Editor of Middlebury Community Network

Environment Inc. (December, 2007)

By Tom Knudson, Pulitzer Prize Winner Special Series in Sacramento Bee (oldie (2001) but goodie)

Errors covertly corrected by the I.P.C.C. after publication And Uncorrected Errors by Al Gore (March, 2007)

By Lord Christopher Monckton

Essential Readings on The Futility and Danger of CO2 Mitigation Schemes Policy, Science and Politics (May, 2009)


Evaluating Working Group (WG) II’s Contribution to IPPC AR4 (May, 2007)

George C. Marshall institute

Extremes of Temperatures - Where is the Global Warming (May, 2008)

By Bruce Hall, Hall of Record

Falsification Of The Atmospheric CO2 Greenhouse Effects Within The Frame Of Physics (July, 2007)

By Gerhard Gerlich, Institute ur Mathematische Physik

Former Elder Statesman President of State Climatologists on Gore’s Disciple’s Lectures (May, 2007)

Bob Durrenberger, Past President, American Association of State Climatologists

Global Change vs Global Warming Issues (September, 2007)

By Gary Sharp, Scientific Director, Center for Climate/Ocean Resources Study from FAO Tech Report 452

Global Climate Change and Hurricanes (May, 2007)

Posted by Olive Heffernan on behalf of Kevin Trenberth on Climate Feedback

Global Warming and Cooling - The Reality (June, 2008)

By Stephen Wilde

Global Warming and Nature’s Thermostat: Precipitation Systems (October, 2007)

By Roy Spencer, Principal Research Scientist at the University of Alabama in Huntsville

Global Warming Myth (May, 2009)

By Dr. Ed Blick

Global Warming Quiz (November, 2008)

Dr. Richard Keen

Global Warming Scare (October, 2008)

By David Pratt

Global Warming: Myth Or Reality: the Erring Ways of Climatology (September, 2007)

By Marcel Leroux

Global warming: What’s the real truth? (February, 2008)

By Paul Krismanits

Greenhouse Gas Facts and Fantasies (June, 2008)

By Tom Kondis

Greenhouse Gas Hypothesis Violates Fundamentals of Physics (June, 2008)

By Dipl.-Ing. Heinz Thieme

Heat Capacity, Time Constant, and Sensitivity of Earth’s Climate System (March, 2008)

By Stephen E. Schwartz, Brookhaven National Laboratory

Holocene, historic and recent global temperatures from temperature proxies (April, 2009)

By Frank Lansner, civil engineer, biotechnology

How to see for yourself the ‘Global Warming’ climate models are false (July, 2009)

By Ron House, July 29, 2009

Hurricanes and Climate Change (October, 2006)

Dr. William Gray, George C. Marshall Institute

Hurricanes and Global Warming (April, 2007)

by R. Pielke Jr., C. Landsea, M. Mayfield, J. Laver, R. Pasch

Hurricanes: A Primer on Formation, Structure, Intensity Change, and Frequency (May, 2006)

By Dr. Robert Hart, George C. Marshall Institute

Independent Summary for Policymakers of the IPCC Report Working Group 1 (February, 2007)

The Fraser Institute

Insights into Key Questions About Climate Change (April, 2004)

Changnon, S.A., Winstanley, D., Informational Series, Illinois Water Survey

IPCC Summary For Policymakers (April, 2007)

IPCC April 2007

IPCC: Spinning The Climate (July, 2008)

By Vincent Gray, IPCC Expert Reviewer

IPPC Fourth Assessment (May, 2007)

IPCC Summary for Policymakers from Working Groups I, II, and III

Lessons and Limits of Climate History: Was the 20th Century Climate Unusual? (April, 2003)

By Dr. Willie Soon and Dr. Sallie Baliunas, George C. Marshall Institute

Medieval Warm Period Project (April, 2007)

CO2 Science

New Observations Show Carbon Emissions Aren’t Causing Global Warming (July, 2008)

By David Evans

Obama’s “Bad Molecule CO2 Myth” is a Dagger in the Back of U.S. Economy (June, 2009)

By Edward F Blick, PhD

On a Possibility of Estimating the Feedback Sign of the Earth Climate System (October, 2007)

By Olavi Kärner, Tartu Observatory, Estonia

On the Coherence between Dynamics of the World Fuel Consumption and Global Temperature Anomaly (August, 2009)

By L.B. Klyashtorin & A.A. Lyubushin on E&E

On the Phenomenon of Atmospheric Backradiation (March, 2008)

By Heinz Thieme

Polar history shows melting ice-cap may be a natural cycle (May, 2007)

By Ian Johnston, The Scotsman

Politicization of Climate Change and CO2 (November, 2008)

by Pete Ridley

Quantitative implications of the secondary role of carbon dioxide climate forcing (July, 2007)

By Dr. Willie Soon, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics Preprint in Physical Geography (July 4, 2007)

Reply to “Huricanes and Global Warming-Potential Linkages and Consequences (May, 2006)

Roger Pielke Jr., Chris Landsea, Max Mayfield, Jim Laver, Richard Pasch

Response to the Geological Society of America Climate Change Statement (October, 2009)

By Dr. Don Easterbrook, Department of Geology, Western Washington University

Review of Book: Unstoppable Global Warming: Every 1500 Years (August, 2007)

Review of Fred Singer and Dennis Avery’s Book by Bob Durrenberger

Revisiting the Analogue for the Coming Ice Age (March, 2008)

By Peter Harris

Rhodes Fairbridge and the idea that the solar system regulates the Earth’s climate (November, 2008)

By Richard Mackey

Sea Level in the Southwest Pacific is Stable (August, 2009)

By Professor Cliff Ollier, University of Western Australia

Solar Cycle 24: Implications for the United States (December, 2008)

By David Archibald

Solar Irradiance and Oceans are the True Drivers of Climate Change (October, 2008)

By Joseph D’Aleo, CCM, AMS Fellow powerpoint at first Heartland ICCC

Solar warming - Solar cooling (April, 2009)

By Erl Happ